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People using long-term indwelling urinary catheters experience multiple recurrent catheter problems. Self-management approaches are needed to avoid catheter-related problems.The aim was to determine effectiveness of a self-management intervention in prevention of adverse outcomes (catheter-related urinary tract infection, blockage, and accidental dislodgement). Healthcare treatment associated with the adverse outcomes and catheter-related quality of life was also studied.A randomized clinical trial was conducted. The intervention involved learning catheter-related self-monitoring and self-management skills during home visits by a study nurse (twice during the first month and at 4 months—with a phone call at 2 months). The control group received usual care. Data were collected during an initial face-to-face home interview followed by bimonthly phone interviews. A total of 202 adult long-term urinary catheter users participated. Participants were randomized to treatment or control groups following collection of baseline data. Generalized estimating equations were used for the analysis of treatment effect.In the intervention group, there was a significant decrease in reported blockage in the first 6 months (p = .02), but the effect did not persist. There were no significant effects for catheter-related urinary tract infection or dislodgment. Comparison of baseline rates of adverse outcomes with subsequent periods suggested that both groups improved over 12 months.A simple-to-use catheter problems calendar and the bimonthly interviews might have functioned as a modest self-monitoring intervention for persons in both groups. A simplified intervention using a self-monitoring calendar is suggested—with optimal and consistent fluid intake likely to add value.