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Breast milk is nutritionally and immunologically superior to any known substitute. Morbidity and mortality are lower in breast-fed infants and their mothers, resulting in better health and lower health care costs. Despite the overwhelming evidence of health benefits and consequent endorsements from professional groups, many health care providers do not actively promote breast-feeding initiation. They may actually undermine breast-feeding duration by providing incorrect advice when problems develop. This article provides recommendations for promoting breast-feeding and discusses diagnosis and management options for common maternal lactation problems, including sore nipples, eczema, candidal infection, and mastitis.