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Helicobacter pyloriis the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world, colonizing the stomachs of more than 50% of the human population. The discovery of this bacterium has changed the concept of care and management for peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphomas, gastritis, and gastric carcinoma. Although the mode of transmission is not definitively known, person-to-person contact is suspected. This article discussesH. pylori,the associated clinical syndromes and diseases, risk factors, and current pharmacologic management.