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This study investigated individual and work-related factors associated with nurses' perceptions of evidence-based practice (EBP) and quality improvement (QI), and the relationships between evidence-based practice, quality improvement and clinical errors.Understanding the factors affecting evidence-based practice and quality improvement activities and their relationships with clinical errors is important for designing strategies to promote evidence-based practice, quality improvement and patient safety.A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 594 nurses in two Korean teaching hospitals using the evidence-based practice Questionnaire and quality improvement scale developed in this study.Four hundred and forty-three nurses (74.6%) returned the completed survey. Nurses' ages and educational levels were significantly associated with evidence-based practice scores whereas age and job position were associated with quality improvement scores. There were positive, moderate correlations between evidence-based practice and quality improvement scores. Nurses who had not made any clinical errors during the past 12 months had significantly higher quality improvement skills scores than those who had.The findings indicated the necessity of educational support regarding evidence-based practice and quality improvement for younger staff nurses who have no master degrees. Enhancing quality improvement skills may reduce clinical errors.Nurse managers should consider the characteristics of their staff when implementing educational and clinical strategies for evidence-based practice and quality improvement.