Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) plays a causal role in atherosclerosis. One way to reduce LDL-C levels is to inhibit cholesterol absorption. Plant sterols and stanols compete with cholesterol for absorption in the intestine and induce an average decrease in LDL-C by 5% to 15% in a dose-dependent manner, but not in all individuals. This review focuses on the interindividual variability in response to dietary supplementation with plant sterols and stanols. Dietary plant sterols and stanols have no significant effects on LDL-C in substantial numbers of individuals. Higher responses, in absolute value and percentage of LDL-C, are observed in individuals with higher cholesterol absorption and a lower rate of cholesterol synthesis. Some data provide evidence of the influence of genetics on the response to plant sterols and stanols. Further studies in large populations are required to extend these conclusions about genetic influences.