Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathology of various psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that food components can modulate inflammatory processes, and therefore it could be hypothesized that such nutrients might exhibit therapeutic efficacy against these brain diseases. Rice bran is often discarded as a waste product, although it contains a wide range of potentially useful substances. Several rice fiber components from rice bran have been described as having antiinflammatory properties. This review summarizes the evidence supporting a modulatory effect of rice fiber components on symptoms in several animal models for neuroinflammation. In vitro studies on immune cells and in vivo studies on nutritional intervention in animal models of central and peripheral inflammation are discussed in the context of the potential use of rice fiber components for prevention and treatment of brain diseases in which neuroinflammation is involved.