(Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2015;40(5):467–478)
Patients with preexisting neurological diseases present a challenge when considering the use of regional anesthesia. Any further physical trauma along the neural pathway could worsen the already damaged neural structures and subject patients to the double crush phenomenon. As these diseases are rare, the available data are limited and conflicting. This article provides a literature update to the 2008 recommendations for performing regional anesthesia in patients with neurological diseases. Prospective, randomized, controlled trials, retrospective studies, case-controlled cohort studies, case series, and case reports published since 2006 were included for review.