(Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2015;40:506–525)
When regional anesthesia or the standard administration of pain medicine causes damage to the neuraxis, it is typically the result of injury to the spinal nerve roots or their blood supply. The causes of these injuries can only occasionally be traced back to a known cause and are frequently difficult to explain. As part of an ongoing effort to address this complicated issue, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine met in 2012 to conduct its second Practice Advisory on the subject of complications associated with regional anesthesia and pain medicine. The purpose of these advisories is to establish an anatomic and pathophysiological foundation on which a more thorough understanding of these complications can be built. This article provides a summary of the meeting’s proceedings as well as a review of any relevant findings that have been published since its conclusion.