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(BJOG. 2016;123(10):1629–1635)Neurodevelopmental delay is multifactorial and can result from a variety of disturbances to the developing fetal brain. Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) that leads to spontaneous preterm birth is often associated with inflammation and infection. As PPROM and neurodevelopmental delay are both associated with inflammation and infection, it has been suggested that prolonged PPROM could be an independent risk factor for neurodevelopmental delay, separate from the increased risk associated with preterm birth. This study aimed to investigate whether prolonged exposure of the fetus in utero to PPROMs was associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay.