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(Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2018;62:293–303)S100β is a sensitive and reliable biomarker that can be used to detect brain damage and hypoxia and ischemia in the fetuses of pregnant patients. In fact, previous studies have demonstrated S100β as a sensitive marker for fetal brain apoptosis, particularly when the fetal brain is exposed to a high concentration of general anesthetic (GA). Although S100β has been well studied in animal models, its effectiveness in human subjects is yet to be confirmed. In the present study, the authors compared the ratio of S100β from umbilical artery to umbilical vein (UA/UV) immediately after delivery of a newborn via cesarean section under either epidural or GA; they hypothesized that S100β would not be increased in cord arterial blood of fetuses exposed briefly to GA when compared with epidural anesthesia (EA).