Interleukin-4, Interleukin-10, and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor in Second-Trimester Serum From Women With Preeclampsia

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To evaluate the serum levels of interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor at the moment of diagnosis and in early second-trimester serum from women with preeclampsia and from gestational age-matched controls.


Serum from 14 women with preeclampsia at the moment of diagnosis and 14 gestational age-matched controls was analyzed. In 10 cases and 10 controls, second-trimester serum also was studied. Cytokines were measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.


Serum levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor at the moment of diagnosis were detected less frequently (21 compared with 71%, P < .01) and in lower concentrations (0 pg/mL [range 0–56] compared with 55.5 pg/mL [range 0–105], P = .01) in women with preeclampsia as compared with controls. In second-trimester serum, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor detection rates (20 and 70% respectively, P = .06) and concentrations (0 pg/mL [range 0–32] and 2.5 pg/mL [range 0–37], respectively, P = .08) were lower in the group of preeclampsia, but the differences do not reach statistical significance. Measurements regarding interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 were similar between both study groups.


Differences in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor support the concept of the existence of an immunologic imbalance as part of the etiologic mechanisms leading to preeclampsia.

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