Patient Uptake and Outcomes: An Immediate Postpartum IUD and Implant Program [12N]

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In-hospital placement of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is increasingly popular after vaginal and cesarean delivery and responds to maternal motivation for highly effective postpartum contraception. The present study assessed in-hospital provision and expulsion of immediate postpartum copper T380 IUD (Cu IUD), levonorgestrel (LNG) IUDs, and contraceptive implants.


Women presenting to the University of Utah Labor and Delivery Unit between October 2013 and March 2015 who requested an IUD or implant were offered enrollment in this prospective observational trial. Eligible patients received devices through the Ryan Residency Training LARC program. Data on expulsions and discontinuations at 3 months was obtained via patient report and supplemented with chart abstraction. Predictors of IUD expulsion were assessed.


During the study period, 404 patients requested a postpartum IUD or implant during prenatal care and 358 devices were placed (88% uptake) prior to discharge from the hospital. A total of 246 women enrolled in the prospective observational outcome study: 73 (30%) Cu IUD users, 93 (38%) LNG IUD users, and 80 (33%) implant users. To date, 85% (n=209) have reached 3 months postpartum and 89% (n=185) have completed follow-up. Three months postpartum, 15/67 (22%) of the LNG IUD users and 3/60 (5%) of the Cu IUD users had an expulsion (P<.01). Among LNG IUD users, primiparity and vaginal delivery were predictors of expulsion (P<.05).


Immediate postpartum LNG IUD users have higher expulsion rates than Cu IUD users. LNG IUD expulsion rates are highest for primiparous women having a vaginal delivery.

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