Maternal nutritional status and gestational weight gain may impact on fetal growth and metabolic responses, increasing the accumulation of fetal adiposity and risk of future obesity. To evaluate the fetal adipose tissue accumulation during pregnancy and fetal and maternal factors associated.METHODS:
Cohort study with 200 pregnant women. The fetal adiposity was assessed by ultrasound at 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Furthermore, maternal anthropometry was evaluated.RESULTS:
The mean fetal abdominal circumference (FAC) and fetal thigh circumference were was 24±1.1 cm and 11.2±1.1 cm (28 weeks) and 32.2±1.6 cm and 17 cm±1.8 (36 weeks), respectively. Correlation between the FAC and the weight of the pregnant was observed in 28 and 36 weeks (P<.0001; P<.0001). There was a correlation between fetal visceral adiposity (FVA) at 28 weeks pregnant and the following variables: weight (P<.0001), waist circumference (P<.0001), weight gain (P<.001), fat subcutaneous (P<.0001), BMI (P<.0001), pre-pregnancy weight (P<.0001), visceral adiposity at 16 weeks (P<.0001) and after partum (P<.0001). At 36 weeks was also correlation between FVA and the following maternal variables: weight (P<.0001), waist circumference (P<.0001), weight gain (P<.0001), subcutaneous fat (P<.0001), BMI (P<.0001) and with pre-pregnancy weight (P<.0001). There was still at 28 weeks association fetal weight and subcutaneous fat of pregnant women (P=.02).CONCLUSION:
The nutritional status and maternal weight gain influenced the accumulation of fetal adiposity during pregnancy.