Smoking Before and During Pregnancy Among Women Reporting Depression or Anxiety

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe prepregnancy smoking, prenatal smoking, and prenatal cessation among women reporting and not reporting depression or anxiety.

METHODS:

We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2009–2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based survey of women with live births (N=34,633). Smoking status was defined as self-reported prepregnancy smoking (during the 3 months before pregnancy), prenatal smoking (during the last 3 months of pregnancy), and prenatal cessation (no smoking by the last 3 months among prepregnancy smokers). Depression and anxiety status was self-reported of having either condition or both during the 3 months before pregnancy. We compared smoking prevalence by self-reported depression and anxiety status using χ2 tests and adjusted prevalence ratios.

RESULTS:

Overall, 16.9% of women in our sample reported depression, anxiety, or both during the 3 months before pregnancy. Compared with those who did not report, women who reported depression or anxiety had significantly higher prepregnancy (46.7% compared with 22.5%, P<.01) and prenatal smoking (27.5% compared with 10.5%, P<.01). A lower proportion of prepregnancy smokers who reported depression or anxiety quit smoking by the last 3 months of pregnancy than those who did not report (41.4% compared with 53.8%, P<.01). In adjusted analyses, women reporting depression or anxiety were 1.5 and 1.7 times more likely to smoke prepregnancy and prenatally, respectively, and less likely to quit smoking (adjusted prevalence ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.80–0.92).

CONCLUSION:

Women who reported depression, anxiety, or both were more likely to smoke before and during pregnancy and less likely to quit smoking during the prenatal period. Screening recommendations for perinatal depression and anxiety provide an opportunity to identify a subpopulation of women who may have a higher prevalence of smoking and to provide effective tobacco cessation interventions and mental health care.

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