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To evaluate the association between the planned mode of delivery and neonatal mortality and morbidity in an unselected population of women with twin pregnancies.The JUmeaux MODe d'Accouchement (JUMODA) study was a national prospective population-based cohort study. All women with twin pregnancies and their neonates born at or after 32 weeks of gestation with a cephalic first twin were recruited in 176 maternity units in France from February 2014 to March 2015. The primary outcome was a composite of intrapartum mortality and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Comparisons were performed according to the planned mode of delivery, planned cesarean or planned vaginal delivery. The primary analysis to control for potential indication bias used propensity score matching. Subgroup analyses were conducted, one according to gestational age at delivery and one after exclusion of high-risk pregnancies.Among 5,915 women enrolled in the study, 1,454 (24.6%) had planned cesarean and 4,461 (75.4%) planned vaginal deliveries, of whom 3,583 (80.3%) delivered both twins vaginally. In the overall population, composite neonatal mortality and morbidity was increased in the planned cesarean compared with the planned vaginal delivery group (5.2% compared with 2.2%; odds ratio [OR] 2.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86–3.05). After matching, neonates born after planned cesarean compared with planned vaginal delivery had higher composite neonatal mortality and morbidity rates (5.3% compared with 3.0%; OR 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.29–2.67). Differences in composite mortality and morbidity rates applied to neonates born before but not after 37 weeks of gestation. Multivariate and subgroup analyses after exclusion of high-risk pregnancies found similar trends.Planned vaginal delivery for twin pregnancies with a cephalic first twin at or after 32 weeks of gestation was associated with low composite neonatal mortality and morbidity. Moreover, planned cesarean compared with planned vaginal delivery before 37 weeks of gestation might be associated with increased composite neonatal mortality and morbidity.