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To assess the 5-year risk and timing of repeat stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) procedures.We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a nationwide database, the 2007–2014 MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicare Supplemental Databases (Truven Health Analytics), which contain deidentified health care claims data from approximately 150 employer-based insurance plans across the United States. We included women aged 18–84 years and used Current Procedural Terminology codes to identify surgeries for SUI and POP. We identified index procedures for SUI or POP after at least 3 years of continuous enrollment without a prior procedure. We defined three groups of women based on the index procedure: 1) SUI surgery only; 2) POP surgery only; and 3) Both SUI+POP surgery. We assessed the occurrence of a subsequent SUI or POP procedure over time for women younger than 65 years and 65 years or older with a median follow-up time of 2 years (interquartile range 1–4).We identified a total of 138,003 index procedures: SUI only n=48,196, POP only n=49,120, and both SUI+POP n=40,687. The overall cumulative incidence of a subsequent SUI or POP surgery within 5 years after any index procedure was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.6–8.1) for women younger than 65 years and 9.9% (95% CI 9.4–10.4) for women 65 years or older. The cumulative incidence was lower if the initial surgery was SUI only and higher if an initial POP procedure was performed, whether POP only or SUI+POP.The 5-year risk of undergoing a repeat SUI or POP surgery was less than 10% with higher risks for women 65 years or older and for those who underwent an initial POP surgery.