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To compare 30-day postsurgical readmission rates and associated risk factors for readmission among women undergoing gynecologic surgery for benign and malignant conditions.In a retrospective cohort study, we identified patients after surgery for benign and malignant gynecologic conditions in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012. Data collected included surgical factors, perioperative characteristics, surgical complications, and 30-day readmissions. The primary study outcome was readmission rates after gynecologic surgery for benign and oncologic conditions. Secondary study outcomes were risk factors associated with readmission among gynecologic surgeries performed for benign and oncologic conditions.Approximately 3% (1,444/46,718) compared with 8.2% (623/7,641) of patients who underwent gynecologic surgery for benign and malignant indications, respectively, were readmitted (P<.01). Compared with patients with benign surgical indications, those with uterine cancer (readmission rate 6.6%; odds ratio [OR] 2.21, 95% CI 1.95–2.51), ovarian cancer (readmission rate 10.9%; OR 3.82, 95% CI 3.29–4.45), and cervical cancer (readmission rate 10.1%; OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.71–4.53) were more likely to be readmitted. In multivariable models, independent risk factors for readmission for gynecologic cancer surgery included worse preoperative conditions (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.17–1.90) and major complications (OR 17.84, 95% CI 14.19–22.43). In comparison, independent risk factors for readmission after surgery for benign indications included comorbid conditions (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.18–1.57), operative time (15–59 minutes: referent; 60 minutes or greater: 1.37, 95% CI 1.14–1.63) and major complications (OR 53.91, 95% CI 46.98–61.85).Among gynecologic surgeries, those performed for oncologic indications were associated with readmission rates 2.8 times that of surgeries performed for benign indications. In adjusted models, worse preoperative conditions and surgical complications remained independent risk factors associated with the higher rate of readmission among patients with gynecologic cancer.