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To assess postaspiration abortion contraceptive use and the role of insurance coverage for abortion in a state that covers abortion and contraception for low-income women.This is a secondary analysis of a previously published prospective study to assess the safety of abortion provision. From 2007 through 2013, women seeking first-trimester aspiration abortion were recruited at 25 clinical facilities within four Planned Parenthood affiliates and Kaiser Permanente of Northern California. Patients' medical charts were reviewed to assess the contraceptive methods received on the day of the abortion. A 4-week follow-up survey assessed contraceptive use and contraceptive-related incidents. Primary outcomes included leaving with any method on the day of the abortion and use of any method at the 4-week assessment. Secondary outcomes included intrauterine device or implant use on the day of the procedure and at 4 weeks and switching to a less effective method at 4 weeks.A total of 19,673 women agreed to participate, and 13,904 (71%) completed the 4-week follow-up survey. Ninety-four percent (18,486/19,673) left their abortion visit with a contraceptive method: 21% (4,111/19,673) with an intrauterine device, implant, or permanent method. By the 4-week survey, 8% (1,135/13,904) switched from a high- or medium-efficacy method to a low-efficacy or no method; 0.4% (60/13,904) experienced a contraceptive incident. In adjusted regression analyses, women who paid for the abortion with Medicaid were significantly more likely to use any method (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.70, 95% CI 3.09–4.42) or an intrauterine device or implant (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.92–2.38) on the day of the abortion than those who did not pay with insurance. Experiencing a contraceptive-related incident was associated with switching to a low-efficacy or no method by the 4-week survey (adjusted OR 3.98, 95% CI 2.20–7.22).Insurance coverage for abortion is associated with postabortion contraceptive provision and use, even in settings that cover abortions and contraception for low-income women.