Pregnancy Exercise and Nutrition With Smartphone Application Support: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the effect of a healthy lifestyle package (an antenatal behavior change intervention supported by smartphone application technology) on the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in overweight and obese women.

METHODS:

Women with body mass indexes (BMIs) 25–39.9 were enrolled into this randomized controlled trial. The intervention consisted of specific dietary and exercise advice that addressed behavior change supported by a tailor-designed smartphone application. Women in the control group received usual care. The primary outcome was the incidence of GDM at 28–30 weeks of gestation. To reduce GDM from 15% to 7.2%, we estimated that 506 women would be required to have 80% power to detect this effect size at a significance of .05, that is, 253 in each group.

RESULTS:

Between March 2013 and February 2016, 565 women were recruited with a mean BMI of 29.3 and mean gestational age of 15.5 weeks. The incidence of GDM did not differ between the two groups, 37 of 241 (15.4%) in the intervention group compared with 36 of 257 (14.1%) in the control group (relative risk 1.1, 95% CI 0.71–1.66, P=.71).

CONCLUSIONS:

A mobile health-supported behavioral intervention did not decrease the incidence of GDM.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ISRCTN registry, https://www.isrctn.com/, ISRCTN29316280.

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