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To evaluate the role of 30-day readmission rate as a quality of care metric in patients undergoing ovarian cancer surgery.We performed a retrospective cohort study of women diagnosed between 2004 and 2013 with advanced-stage, high-grade, serous carcinoma who underwent primary treatment. Using the National Cancer Database, we compared the performance of hospital risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rate to other quality of care metrics (risk-adjusted 30- and 90-day mortality, rates of adherence to guideline-based care, and overall survival) within hospitals categorized by yearly case volume (10 or less, 11–20, 21–30, and 31 cases per year or more).A total of 42,931 patients met the inclusion criteria. The overall unplanned 30-day readmission rate was 6.36% (95% CI 6.13–6.59). After adjusting for comorbidity, stage, histology, and sociodemographic and treatment factors, hospitals performing 31 cases per year or more had a 24% higher likelihood of readmission (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.25, 95% CI 1.06–1.46) when compared with those performing 10 cases per year or less. However, hospitals performing 31 cases per year or more had a significantly lower risk-adjusted 90-day mortality (adjusted OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60–0.91) despite higher rates of complex surgical procedures and higher rates of guideline-concordant care delivery (86% vs 77%, P<.001). In the Cox proportional hazards regression model, care at a high-volume hospital was independently predictive of lower hazard of death (adjusted hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.82–0.90).Hospitals with 31 cases per year or more have a lower 30- and 90-day mortality despite performing more complex surgeries, are more likely to be adherent to guideline-based care, and achieved higher overall survival.