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Domestic workers form an important group of migrant workers throughout the world. They offer vital services to the receiving countries. In Argentina legal framework exists to employ domestic workers, but migrants from another country need to obtain a legal residency status. The aim of this study was to compare working and employment conditions of migrant domestic workers without residency status to domestic workers with an Argentinian passport or with a residency status. Additionally, risk factors for poor health should be identified.In this cross-sectional study, 201 female domestic workers (response 94%) answered a written questionnaire. The European Working Conditions Survey was adapted to the specific work situation. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and one general health item were used to assess health.Countries of origin included Paraguay (87%), Peru (8%) and Bolivia (5%). Migrant workers without residency status (35%) were younger, had lower education and a shorter length of service than migrants with residency status. They were more likely to work informally (94% vs 65%; p<0.001), more than 48 hours/week (58% vs 37%; p=0.02), to be exposed to violence or bullying at the workplace (27% vs 15%; p=0.05) and to take care of elderly (67% vs 30%; p<0.001). Differences remained after controlling for age and education. For all domestic workers, violence or mobbing was the main predictor for poor mental health (prevalence 12%; OR 4.7; 95% CI: 1.6 to 13.6) and poor/fair general health (23%; OR 6.5; 2.7–15.4). Workers with a higher educational level and workers of 30–39 year are at high risk of poor mental health, informal workers are at low risk.Domestic workers as an important pull factor in international migration may result in precarious employment especially for workers without a legal residency status. Violence or mobbing was the main predictor for poor health.