Gastrointestinal Symptom Representation in Cancer Symptom Clusters: A Synthesis of the Literature

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Abstract

Purpose/Objectives:

To review how gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are represented within symptom clusters in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

Data Sources:

MedLINE®, PsycINFO, and CINAHL®.

Data Synthesis:

Forty-two symptom clusters containing a GI component emerged. Only four clusters were replicated in different samples; 38 were unique clusters. Thirteen different symptom measurement tools were used across the studies. Nineteen different GI symptoms were measured; however, many chemotherapy- or cancer-related GI symptoms known to be present in this population were missing or underrepresented. Twenty-one of the studies reviewed identified a symptom cluster that was primarily (50% or greater) composed of GI symptoms.

Conclusions:

GI symptoms are prevalent in symptom clusters, but those clusters often are inconsistent. One explanation for this finding may be that current symptom measurement tools do not fully address GI symptoms commonly experienced by patients receiving chemotherapy.

Implications for Nursing:

Future research should focus on using a comprehensive symptom assessment tool in a homogenous sample of participants who are receiving chemotherapy. Improved measurement of GI symptoms will advance symptom cluster research, which could impact assessment of chemotherapy-related symptoms and development of interventions for symptom clusters.

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