Improving Functional Status in African Americans With Cancer Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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OBJECTIVES:To determine the efficacy of the Power Over Pain-Coaching (POP-C) intervention to improve functional status among African American outpatients with cancer pain.SAMPLE & SETTING:310 African American patients were recruited from an urban comprehensive cancer center. The study took place in the patients' homes.METHODS & VARIABLES:A two-group randomized design with repeated measures was used. Data were analyzed with linear mixed effects regression analysis and structural equation change score models. Variables were pain, pain-related distress, functional status, perceived control over pain, and the following antecedents to control: medication management, pain advocacy, and living with pain.RESULTS:Functional status was improved in POP-C participants relative to control group participants (p < 0.05). Distress also was differentially decreased (p < 0.05). Pain intensity ratings decreased significantly in all patients (p < 0.05). The largest intervention effects were observed in the living with pain component.IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING:Perceived control over pain was strongly related to functional status and is amenable to interventions using the POP-C intervention components described in this article.

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