To examine the risk of death from leukaemia in relation to occupational chronic low-level external and internal radiation exposure in a cohort of 58 972 former German uranium miners with mortality follow-up from 1946 to 2013.Methods
The red bone marrow (RBM) dose from low-linear energy transfer (LET) (mainly external γ-radiation) and high-LET (mainly radon gas) radiation was estimated based on a job-exposure matrix and biokinetic/dosimetric models. Linear excess relative risks (ERR) and 95% CIs were estimated via Poisson regression for chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) and non-CLL.Results
The mean cumulative low-LET and high-LET RBM doses among the 86% radiation-exposed workers were 48 and 9 mGy, respectively. There was a positive non-significant dose-response for mortality from non-CLL (n=120) in relation to low-LET (ERR/Gy=2.18; 95% CI −0.41 to 6.37) and high-LET radiation (ERR/Gy=16.65; 95% −1.13 to 46.75). A statistically significant excess was found for the subgroup chronic myeloid leukaemia (n=31) in relation to low-LET radiation (ERR/Gy=7.20; 95% CI 0.48 to 24.54) and the subgroup myeloid leukaemia (n=99) (ERR/Gy=26.02; 95% CI 2.55 to 68.99) for high-LET radiation. The ERR/Gy tended to be about five to ten times higher for high-LET versus low-LET radiation; however, the CIs largely overlapped. Results indicate no association of death from CLL (n=70) with either type of radiation.Conclusions
Our findings indicate an increased risk of death for specific subtypes from non-CLL in relation to chronic low-LET and high-LET radiation, but no such relation for CLL.