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To identify gender-related differences in proportionate mortality estimates of acute occupational pesticides poisoning among farmer workers in Brazil. This is a proportionate mortality study, carried out with work-related injuries deaths, which occurred with farmer workers from 16 to 70 years of age, focusing acute occupational pesticide poisoning. Data were from the Brazilian Mortality Information System (SIM) from 2000 to 2013. Potential associated factors were age group, skin colour, marital status, education and country region. Estimates of proportionate mortality odds ratio of work-related acute pesticide poisoning was association the measure.There were 6754 work-related injuries deaths among agricultural workers, 643 caused by occupational acute pesticide poisoning, a proportionate mortality of 9.5%, higher among women (n=65; 24.9%) compared with men (n=578; 8.9%) in general, and for all categories of potential associated factors. The contribution of work-related fatal pesticide poisoning relative to all occupational injuries among farmer women was higher when they were under 30 years of age, had brown or black skin colour, lived in the poorest regions of the country and the injury occurred during summer. Distinctively, males had relative excess of cases when were older, white, single or married, better education and the death occurred in all seasons but winter. Work-related deaths caused by pesticide poisoning are preventable and should not occur or be a very rare event as described in developing countries. The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture in Brazil warns to implement safer practices for all, targeting the growing number of women labour force, and young workers expressive in rural areas.