Influence of environmental exposures on prostate cancer remains largely unclear. We aimed to document the associations of occupational and environmental risk factors with prostate cancer in Hong Kong using a case-control study.Methods
We consecutively recruited 431 incident prostate cancer cases and 402 controls to obtain information on occupational and environmental exposures using a standard questionnaire, including smoking, dietary habits, family cancer history, night shift work, use of detergents and pesticide, and lifetime usage of food containers. We developed a new assessment tool of environmental BPA exposure and created a novel cumulative BPA exposure index (CBPAI). Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was performed using multiple logistic regression analysis.Results
Family history of prostate cancer was more common in cases (9.5%) than controls (3.0%), showing an adjusted OR of 3.68 (95% CI: 1.85–7.34). Weekly consumption of deep fried food and picked vegetable was associated with an excessive prostate cancer risk by 85% (95% CI: 15%–195%) and 87% (7%–228%). Night shift work was hazardous (OR=1.76, 95% CI: 1.07–2.89) but habitual green tea drinking was protective (OR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.34–0.91). A positive exposure-response relationship with CPBAI and prostate cancer was observed.Conclusions
This study demonstrated an overall picture of occupational and environmental risk factors to prostate cancer among Hong Kong Chinese men. Furthermore, this study provided the first epidemiological evidence on carcinogenicity of BPA on human prostate thus added breakthrough data into the literature.Funding
Health and Medical Research Fund (Ref. No. 11121091), Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.