Brazil is one of the major producers of chrysotile worldwide, but few studies evaluated its effects on the health of Brazilians. Moreover, there are concerns of miscoding of mesothelioma cases. A joint project was started between the Federal University of Paranà (UFPR), Curitiba, Brazil, and the Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy to evaluate effect of chrysotile exposure. The project, supported by CAPES, Brasilia, include two main areas of research. The first is a cohort mortality study among asbestos-cement workers. From the Ministerio Publlico do Trabalho, Curitiba, we recently received lists of about 10 000 workers employed since the beginning of production (1974, 1974, and 1993) in three asbestos-cement factories in Curitiba and its Metropolitan Region. Data editing and evaluation of sources of information to perform the mortality follow-up are in progress. The second area involves the implementation of a registry of malignant mesothelioma cases in Curitiba based on the Italian model. For this reason, two post-docs are in Milan to study procedures of the Italian and Lombardy Region Mesothelioma Registry, to translate the Italian standardised questionnaire on asbestos exposure, and to adapt the database. As a complementary study, we are analysing the records (1998–2012) related to mesothelioma of the Curitiba Population-Based Cancer Registry. Clinical documentation of 269 adult subjects with ICD-10 codes C45 (mesothelioma), C38 (mediastinal and pleural cancers), and C48 (peritoneal cancers) will be examined to identify potential false negatives (i.e., primary pleural/peritoneal cancers classified under incorrect cancer sites like mediastinum and retroperitoneum).