The interactive effects between temperature and inhalable particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter <10 µm, PM10) on mortality have been examined in some previous studies, but the results were inconsistent. This study aim to explore whether the effects of PM10 on daily non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality are modified by temperature level in Beijing from 2006 to 2009.Methods
We applied bivariate response surface model and temperature-stratified model based on time-series Poisson generalised additive model (GAM) to examine the interactive effects in single- and two-pollutant models. The modification of age and gender were examined in subgroup analyses.Results
We found that the effect estimates of PM10 varied across temperature levels for non-accidental and different cause-specific mortalities. The PM10 effects in high levels of temperature were stronger than in low levels for non-accidental and respiratory mortality. For cardiovascular mortality, the effects were only statistically significant in low temperature level at current day, which was stronger than in high temperature level. The effects of PM10 for female were stronger than male in high temperature level, while in low temperature level, the effects were stronger for male group. The effects of PM10 were stronger for elder people (≥65) in both high and low temperature levels. Compared with low temperature, the effects were stronger in high levels for both of the age groups.Conclusion
The daily mortality attributed to PM10 could be modified by temperature. The interaction between air pollution and global climate change has potential strategy and policy implications.