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The causes of temporary incapacity, established through official expertise (Ministry of Welfare) in Paraty unit, Brazil, are evaluated by establishing the epidemiological profile aiming the proposal of preventive measures.Retrospective study of all skills that generated financial support for disability in the year 2016 in the city of Paraty, totaling 1024 skills The cases are grouped according to occupational group, diagnoses, productive sector and age group and comparing the incidence and severity between the groups. Only cases of temporary incapacity limited to the maximum period of 2 years were studied.The less educated workers, the primary and the male sector showed an extended period of disability. The main diagnosis of disability was according to ICD-10: lesions (group XIX), diseases of the musculoskeletal system (GROUP XIII), blood disease (GROUP II), circulatory group disease (GROUP IX), diseases of the digestive tract).The results demonstrate an effect of productive restructuring in our country with the prevalence of diseases classic professionals with decreased prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases and work – related. Most of the lesions are connected to the means of transport (only 2 out of 258 were typical work accidents). These results require a need for articulation of preventive policies in addition to the Occupational Medicine service and training of occupational health professionals for the recognition and prevention of a new epidemiological picture of Brazilian workers.