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The idea of establishing a Museum of Health at Work in Budapest was first proposed in 1894 in the National Assembly of Industrial Safety Inspectors. The Institute and Museum of Health at Work in Hungary was founded in 1901, aimed at educating the working population, examining health and safety hazards, and promoting health and welfare. The Museum’s founding collection was from the Hungarian pavilion at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 in Paris, France. The framework of relationship between the Museum and Safety Inspectors was prescribed by ministerial decree in 1908. Unfortunatelly, during the 2nd World War the Museum was completely destroyed.The research method was a holistic data gathering in which printed and online available archival, literature, legal sources and press-material between 1890 and 1950 were explored. Content analysis using bibliometric and historical research methods on available documentation sources.The Museum played a central role in prevention campaigns in Hungary. It attracted approximately 20.000 visitors per year. The highest recorded number of visitors was over 32.500 in 1928, when the triennial (ICOH) World Congress on Occupational Health was held in Budapest, Hungary. The importance of accident prevention, early recognition of occupational diseases, and welfare of workers was addressed by the Museum. The collection was divided into 14 sub-collections, for eg. Accident Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, First Aid, Tuberculosis, Welfare of Mothers, etc. The 1 st European Occupational Health Nurse (Industrial Welfare Nurse) course was also held in the Museum in 1933.This historical work describes the four decades of this Institution through the activities, and contribute at the international history of occupational health and can deepen the historical knowledge also about occupational health nursing.