Mining is among the most hazardous workplaces at a global level. Accidents as well as pneumoconiosis, poisonings and cancers take a high dead toll among miners. Other diseases due to heavy workload, noise, vibrations and high or low temperature such as hearing loss, white fingers, carpal tunnel syndrome and muscle and back pain are not deadly but still serious for the miners. In this session we will be presented for miner’s liver and kidney diseases, which might have a connexion to the high temperatures, dehydration and salt depletion in mines as also described in some farmers studies from Central America. Implementation of OHS preventive measures in mining is often difficult due to the mostly unregulated small scale and artisanal mining taking place in mainly low-income countries were rules and regulations are hard to enforce. Some key issues in prevention is appropriate laws and their enforcement, banning of toxic mining processes, better environmental control and education and new technology such as cooling wests used for prevention of heat distress among others.