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There is a growing body of literature examining potential hazards of engineered nanomaterials. This session will take stock of some of that literature and in particular, consider High Aspect Ratio Nanomaterials (HARNs) and more specifically carbon nanotubes. The first part of the session will address the oxidative/stress effects of various metallic nanoparticles. This will be followed by a discussion of a Horizon 2020 project known as BIORIMA. BIORIMA is a multinational collaboration to assess hazards of nano biomaterials and develop appropriate risk management tools. The remaining presentations will focus on a range of issues related to HARNs. These include assessing the similarities between carbon nanotubes (CNT) and asbestos, the identification of molecular initiating events of CNT in biological systems, the role of fibre rigidity in toxicity, mechanisms of CNT-induced inflammation, dustiness as a risk group strategy, the state of knowledge on occupational exposures, and risk management. Clearly there are many types of CNT in commerce and it is difficult to characterise the hazard with a single description. These sessions will help to identify the many factors that need to be considered.