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The health condition of professional drivers is one of the factors playing a role in assuring traffic safety. Therefore, it is essential the assessment of the profile of the drivers receiving sick leave benefits as well as the pathologies occurring in this occupational group. This study aimed to assess the profile of professional drivers receiving sick leave benefits from the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security (INSS).This was a cross-sectional study involving 120 professional drivers receiving temporary sick leave benefits from INSS. The drivers were evaluated from November 2014 until December 2015 and submitted to a structured analysis for data collection including: gender, age, type of vehicle driving, driver’s license type, ICD-10, absenteeism time, presence of chronic disability and current employment status.The results showed that all drivers were male having a mean age of 54 years-old ranging from 24 to 71 years-old; truck drivers represented 47%, bus drivers (27%), and drivers of others vehicles (26%), being mostly category D (68%) and category E (20%). Trough ICD-10, the study revealed the most affected diseases were cardiovascular (31%) and musculoskeletal diseases (29%). The mean absenteeism time was 62 days and 8% developed chronic disability, 90% kept the same post, accommodation was necessary in 8% of the cases, and 2% had disability retirement.From these results, it is concluded that most professional drivers receiving sick leave benefits from INSS were adult males, category D truck drivers, presenting mainly with cardiovascular and orthopaedic diseases, absent from work for two months and some associated with chronic impairment. The results provide some evidence that Brazilian professional drivers are at risk for developing certain diseases. These data also should help companies to take measures for preventing work time loss and disability caused by these diseases, including for example health promotion.