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Malignant hemopathies are rare diseases whose professional origin is probably underestimated, despite the growing number of epidemiological studies on this subject. The important role of extraprofessional factors (especially genetic factors), the rarity of malignant hemopathies, their heterogeneity, and their significant onset after carcinogenic exposure, all contribute to explain the difficulties of etiological research in regards of occupational factors.The aim of this work is to study the various work related malignant hemopathies recognised by the legislator and their etiologies, based on data from the literature as well as the Moroccan occupational diseases charts.Only benzene and ionising radiation are recognised as undisputable carcinogens for blood-forming organs. Thus, different types of leukaemia occurring in the context of occupational exposure to these toxic substances, are included in the occupational diseases charts and are, for this reason, compensable. Nonetheless, there are uncertainties regarding the induction of malignant hemopathies by exposure to certain pesticides, organic solvents, infectious agents and electromagnetic fields for which further epidemiological studies are required.Since the only agents known for their induction of malignant hemopathies and are recognised by the Moroccan regulations are benzene and ionising radiation, it is necessary to push the interrogation to establish the causal link to influence the repair of other cancers due to alternate professional exposures and to put in place preventive actions.Prolonged conservation of medical records of the exposed employees and the appeal to the responsible committee are necessary for the improvement of knowledge and the evolution of regulation.In terms of prevention, medical surveillance, the protection of employees and the use of less toxic alternatives as soon as possible are obviously essential.