|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Occupational exposures are of the major risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As these factors are different entities, there is a probability of numerous unique disease endotypes caused by certain industrial pollutants.The objective of the study was to evaluate inflammatory serum profiles and to discover potential biomarkers of COPD attributed to different environmental factors. It was an observational prospective study recruited 167 COPD subjects, 42 exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons 55 to inorganic dust and 70 tobacco smokers. Control group – 62 healthy workers. Groups were matched by demographics and smoking status. Serum pulmonary inflammation markers matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), interleukin 1β (IL1β), interleukin 1β receptor antagonist protein (IL1RA), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA), superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3), interleukin 12 (IL12), interleukin 17 (IL17) and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC/CCL18) level were assessed by ELISA. Multiple regression model was used to explore the relationships. ROC analysis and area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy.Significant differences between groups were found in IL1β (12,1±1,45 pg/ml in COPD due to chemicals, 12,1±1,45 pg/ml in COPD due to dust and 0,2±0,10 pg/ml in COPD due to tobacco smoke), TGFβ (1228,9±130,30 pg/ml, 421,2±29,02 pg/ml and 263,7±111,43 pg/ml respectively), FGF 2 (0,1±0,07 pg/ml, 21,5±1,06 pg/ml and 9,3±0,77 pg/ml), VEGF A (129,9±24,79 pg/ml, 489,2±73,93 pg/ml and 852,7±73,81 pg/ml) and SOD3 (1,4±0,08 ng/ml, 11,3±0.90 ng/ml and 15,7±9,39 ng/ml). In the multiple regression model, significant predictors were IL1β, TGFβ, VEGFA levels for chemical risk factor (AUC=0.9) and IL1β, FGF2 for dust rick factor (AUC=0.8).Serum interleukin 1β, TGFβ, FGF2 and VEGF A levels have the potential of being markers of COPD due to different environmental factors.