It is extremely difficult to evaluate the extent to which agricultural workers are exposed to pesticides. This is due to the large number of plant protection products (PPPs) used on a single crop and the variety of active substances (ASs) that have been used over the course of time.Methods
PPP Index is a repertoire of pesticides listing the ASs authorised and marketed in France each year.Methods
All the data collected between 1961 and 2014 was compiled in CIPA-TOX database. Relevant toxicological iformation was added to 1053 ASs. The method used to is based on European regulations, international classification (IARC and US-EPA for carcinogens) and on the search for toxicological reference values (TRV). One or several health effects was attributed to ASs including carcinogenicity, reprotoxicity, neurotoxicity, endocrine disruption, etc.Results
CIPA-Tox provides information about the use of PPP over time in France. The number of ASs authorised, decreased slightly in the second half of the first decade of the millennium; it then remained stable through 2014. For the toxicological field, more than 70% of the substances authorised in France since 1960 have at least one health effect. Six substances classified as probable or proven carcinogens remain on the market. Endocrine disruptors represent more than 100 authorised ASs. The most affected crops are vinyards and arboriculture.Discussion
The advantages of CIPA-TOX are to take into account all the ASs marketed since 1961 and to apply for identifying health effects a clear and rigorous protocol. The limits are that some substances do not show any health effect. This doesn’t mean that they are not harmful but only that the data are lacking. The TRV based on a threshold to avoid the first relevant health effect that appears. This does not mean that other effects do not exist.