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The urban bus driver work has several implications, being of great importance the fact that it develops in a public environment. The traffic isn´t a defined workspace, being an environment of constant shift and, for that reason, differently from most workers, the bus driver practice his labour outside of the territorially demarcated business environment. This situation exposes this profession to the interference of a diversity of risk factors that many times are out of the scope of its competence. The aim of this study was to identify the most prevalent risk factors and prevention strategies to avoid the illness among the urban bus drivers, in the period of 2006–2016.A literature survey involving the subject of mental health and the urban bus drivers was made by a direct consultation of scientific articles published in Scielo, Lilacs and Medline database, published from 2006 to 2016.After peer-reading and selection of abstracts according to the parameters described above, fourteen articles were selected and analysed.The labour influences the physiological and mental state of the driver, which can lead to irritability, insomnia and attention disturbances. The act of driving is exhausting and its performance is related specially to environment factors of the labour working space and the individual form of coping. Therefore, labour and health conditions of the urban collective bus driver may be considered as psychic and organic pathologies sources. The organisational aspect of labour exerts a great influence over the psychic disorders in this group of professionals, such as the relationship with bosses and colleagues, stability and professional bond and work requirement in relation to the conditions offered. External factors such as road conditions, intense traffic, transit regulations and violence, also exerts a strong influence over the psychosocial health of the urban bus driver.