Transrectal Prostate Biopsy-Associated Prophylaxis and Infectious Complications: Report of a Query to the Emerging Infections Network of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

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Background. Fluoroquinolone-resistant infections after transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) are increasing.

Methods. Members of the Emerging Infections Network, a consortium of adult infectious diseases physicians sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Infectious Diseases Society of America, were administered an electronic 9-question survey regarding post-TRPB infections and associated prophylaxis. Results were compared with respondent characteristics.

Results. The overall response rate was 47% (552 of 1180). Of the 552 respondents, 234 (42%) reported that this problem was not applicable to their practice. The remaining 318 (58%) reported that, despite widespread recent changes in prophylactic regimens, fluoroquinolone monotherapy still was most common, but diverse alternate or supplemental oral and parenteral antibiotics (including imipenem) also were used. Reports of culture-guided prophylaxis were rare (9%). The most common duration of prophylaxis was a single prebiopsy antibiotic dose. However, 16%–23% of respondents reported prophylaxis continuing for ≥24 hours postbiopsy. Post-TRPB infections were reported as being more frequent now than 4 years ago, with sepsis and genitourinary presentations predominating, but with osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and epidural abscess also occurring. Infection isolates reportedly were usually resistant to the prophylactic regimen.

Conclusions. Emerging Infections Network members perceive post-TRPB infections as increasingly frequent, caused by resistant strains, and involving serious illness. Prophylactic approaches, although in flux, still usually entail ciprofloxacin monotherapy, which often is given for excessive durations. Multiple opportunities exist for infectious diseases specialists to partner with proceduralists in devising, studying, and implementing improved prophylaxis regimens for TRPB.

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