Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma in a Caucasian Patient After Sexual Transmission of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1

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Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a T-cell neoplasm caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), develops in the majority of cases in individuals who were infected with HTLV-1 as young children, by their mother during prolonged breastfeeding. We report the case of a Caucasian French man, whose parents were HTLV-1-seronegative and who developed ATLL after HTLV-1 sexual transmission by a Cameroonian woman. This hypothesis was corroborated by genotyping of the patient's virus, which revealed an HTLV-1B strain, found only in Central Africa, especially in Cameroon. Thus, ATLL may develop after HTLV-1 infection during adulthood, outside breastfeeding.

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