Increased Age-Dependent Risk of Death Associated With lukF-PV-Positive Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

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Abstract

Background.

Panton-Valentine leucocidin is a Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor encoded by lukF-PV and lukS-PV that is infrequent in S aureus bacteremia (SAB), and, therefore, little is known about risk factors and outcome of lukF-PV/lukS-PV-positive SAB.

Methods.

This report is a register-based nationwide observational cohort study. lukF-PV was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Factors associated with the presence of lukF-PV were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Adjusted 30-day hazard ratios of mortality associated with lukF-PV status were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.

Results.

Of 9490 SAB cases, 129 were lukF-PV-positive (1.4%), representing 14 different clonal complexes. lukF-PV was associated with younger age, absence of comorbidity, and methicillin-resistant S aureus. In unadjusted analysis, mortality associated with lukF-PV-positive SAB was comparable to SAB. However, lukF-PV-positive SAB nonsurvivors were significantly older and had more comorbidity. Consequently, by adjusted analysis, the risk of 30-day mortality was increased by 70% for lukF-PV-positive SAB compared with SAB (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–2.42; P = .003).

Conclusions.

lukF-PV-positive SAB is rare in Denmark but associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality. Although the risk of lukF-PV-positive SAB was highest in the younger age groups, >80% of deaths associated with lukF-PV-positive SAB occurred in individuals older than 55 years.

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