Economic Conditions During Pregnancy and Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Singleton Live Births in the United States, 1990–2013

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(Abstracted from Am J Epidemiol 2017;186(10):1131–1139)Although there exists a plethora of evidence on the adverse adult health effects of negative macroeconomic change, little is known about the effects of macroeconomic change on birth outcomes. This association is inherently difficult to discern, given the lack of state- and time-specific data and the simultaneous effects of economic conditions on fetal health and economic conditions on who is born (ie, selection). Economic conditions prior and during pregnancy may affect women's choices to conceive, declines in fertility, spontaneous pregnancy loss, and elective abortion.

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