Characterization of serum antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis in individuals with and without periodontitis

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Abstract

Although Porphyromonas gingivalis is a defined pathogen in periodontal disease, many subjects control the infection without experiencing loss of attachment. Differences in host susceptibility to the disease may be reflected in the pattern of humoral antibodies against specific P. gingivalis antigens. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of antibodies against immunodominant P. gingivalis antigens as well as the isotype and subclass of anti-P. gingivalis antibodies against outer membrane antigens in four groups of patients: P. gingivalis-positive, 1) with and 2) without periodontitis, and P. gingivalis-negative, 3) with and 4) without periodontitis. Antigens of molecular weight 92, 63, and 32 kDa and lipopolysaccharide were found to be immunodominant. Group 1 subjects showed a significantly higher response to the 92 and 63 kDa antigens compared with other groups. The response to lipopolysaccharide was significantly higher in group 1, and lower in group 4 than in groups 2, 3. Immunoglobulin G1(IgG1), IgG2 and IgM antibodies against P. gingivalis outer membrane were present in all subjects, while only some subjects were seropositive for IgG3, IgG4 and IgA. There were no differences in concentrations for IgG1, IgG3 and IgM. The IgG2 concentration in group 4 was significantly higher than in groups 1 and 2, while the IgG4 concentration in group 4 was significantly lower than in other groups. The frequency of seropositivity for IgG4 and IgA was lowest in group 4, while IgG3 seropositivity was almost exclusively seen in healthy patients in groups 2, 4. These findings suggest that the presence of IgG3 may reflect non- susceptibility to the disease, while lack of IgG4 may be indicative of periodontal health and lack of infection.

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