Soluble products from Eikenella corrodens induce cell proliferation and expression of interleukin-8 and adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways

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The periodontal vasculature is profoundly affected during the progression of periodontitis, and several specific bacteria are believed to be involved in this inflammatory disease. Eikenella corrodens is one of the common bacteria detected in periodontitis diseased lesions; however, the function of this organism in periodontitis is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the E. corrodens-induced endothelial cell alteration and inflammation process that leads to leukocyte infiltration in inflamed regions. Soluble products from E. corrodens (EcSP) induced the gene expression and protein production of vascular endothelial growth factor in oral epithelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Direct stimulation by EcSP also activated endothelial cell proliferation. Moreover, EcSP induced ERK1/2 (p44/42) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation within 10–30 min in HUVEC, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis and up-regulated intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production demonstrated by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 reduced the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and IL-8, whereas the blockade of p44/42 by MAPK kinase (MEK1) inhibitor, PD98059, inhibited only IL-8 expression. Our results indicate that E. corrodens can trigger a cascade of events that induce inflammatory responses in periodontal tissue via the MAPK cascade and may promote chronic periodontitis without bacteria–cell contact.

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