Phenotypic and genotypic identification of Candida dubliniensis from subgingival sites in immunocompetent subjects in Argentina

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Abstract

Introduction

It is generally recognized that Candida dubliniensis is commonly found in immunocompromised patients, such as those with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection, at sites of periodontal disease. Since there are no data available for Argentina, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and to identify C. dubliniensis in periodontal pockets from immunocompetent subjects living in Buenos Aires, Argentina, through a comparison of phenotypic and molecular assays.

Methods

Yeasts recovered from subgingival plaque samples were studied for 180 immunocompetent non-smoking patients with periodontal disease. Yeasts were identified by conventional mycological methods and by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility studies were performed in keeping with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

Results

Among 76 yeasts isolated, C. dubliniensis comprised 10.5% (n = 8; 95% confidence interval 4.7–19.7), which corresponded to 4.4% of patients studied (8/180). C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species of yeast. A great majority of C. dubliniensis isolates was susceptible with only one isolate resistant to both antifungals.

Conclusion

Micromorphology on Staib agar was the phenotypic method that was most concordant with PCR and it was useful for selecting presumptive C. dubliniensis. This is the first report to use PCR to identify C. dubliniensis in subgingival fluid from immunocompetent individuals with periodontal disease in Argentina. On the basis of the findings presented here, we confirm that C. dubliniensis can colonize periodontal pockets of immunocompetent patients with periodontal disease.

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