Porphyromonas gingivalis induces nitric oxide (NO) production in various cells, systemic NO elevation being expected in chronic oral challenge.Methods:
Groups of BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with either live P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 or sterile broth on days 0, 2 and 4, with or without later administration of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor 1400W. Plasma and tissues were harvested on day 42 for assays of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitrite and nitrate (NOx) and tissue NO, or histology and iNOS immunohistochemistry.Results:
No signs of gingivitis were observed, but plasma NOx was significantly elevated (P = 0.028) as was TNF-α (P = 0.079) in P. gingivalis-inoculated animals compared with controls, NOx being reduced when 1400W was used. NO production in organs showed a similar trend, with significant elevation in liver (P = 0.017) and kidneys (P = 0.027), whereas concomitant treatment of inoculated animals with 1400W caused significant reductions in NO in aorta (P = 0.008) and kidneys (P = 0.046). Sham-inoculated 1400W-treated animals had significantly increased plasma NOx (P = 0.004) and liver NO (P = 0.04). NOx in plasma correlated significantly with NO production in lungs (0.35, P = 0.032) and kidneys (0.47, P = 0.003). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated iNOS activity in many tissues in all groups.Conclusion:
Repeated oral administration of P. gingivalis induced systemic NO and NOx production in mice, probably by activating iNOS as suggested by the response to 1400W.