RGC32, a novel p53-inducible gene, is located on centrosomes during mitosis and results in G2/M arrest

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Abstract

To identify target genes for the hemizygous deletions of chromosome 13 that are recurrently observed in malignant gliomas, we performed genome-wide DNA copy-number analysis using array-based comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression analysis using an oligonucleotide-array. The response gene to complement 32 (RGC32) at 13q14.11 was identified as a deletion target, and its expression was frequently silenced in glioma cell lines compared with normal brain. Levels of RGC32 mRNA tended to decrease toward higher grades of primary astrocytomas, especially in tumors with mutations of p53. Expression of RGC32 mRNA was dramatically increased by exogenous p53 in a p53-mutant glioma cell line, and also by endogenous p53 in response to DNA damage in p53+/+ colon-cancer cells, but not in isogenic p53−/− cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays demonstrated binding of endogenous p53 protein to the promoter region of the RGC32 gene, implying p53-dependent transcriptional activity. Transiently and stably overexpressed RGC32 suppressed the growth of glioma cells, probably owing to induction of G2/M arrest. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed a concentration of RGC32 protein at the centrosome during mitosis. RGC32 formed a protein complex with polo-like kinase 1 and was phosphorylated in vitro. These observations implied a novel mechanism by which p53 might negatively regulate cell-cycle progression by way of this newly identified transcriptional target. Our results provide the first evidence that RGC32 might be a possible tumor-suppressor for glioma, that it is directly induced by p53, and that it mediates the arrest of mitotic progression.

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