MicroRNA-335 acts as a metastasis suppressor in gastric cancer by targeting Bcl-w and specificity protein 1

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Abstract

Aberrant expression of miR-335 has been frequently reported in cancer studies, suggesting that there is a close correlation between miR-335 and cancer during its development, progression, metastasis and prognosis. The expression of miR-335 in gastric cancer and its effects are not known. Relative expression of miR-335 in 4 gastric cancer cell lines and in 70 gastric cancer tissues was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR compared with controls. Transwell cell migration and Matrigel invasion assayin vitroand metastasis formation assayin vivowere used to examine the effects of miR-335 expression on gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The effect of miR-335 expression on gastric cancer cell proliferation was estimated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Luciferase reporter assay and western blot were used to examine the potential target genes and related pathways. Gene silencing with small-interfering RNA was used to examine the effects of target genes on gastric cancer cell invasion. miR-335 was dramatically downregulated in gastric cancer cell lines than in the normal gastric cell line GES-1. Low expression of miR-335 was significantly associated with lymph-node metastasis, poor pT stage, poor pN stage and invasion of lymphatic vessels. Overexpression of miR-335 suppressed gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasisin vitroandin vivo, but has no significant effects on cell proliferation. Furthermore, miR-335 might suppress gastric cancer invasion and metastasis by targeting Bcl-w and specificity protein 1 (SP1). Taken together, our results provide evidence that miR-335 might function as a metastasis suppressor in gastric cancer by targeting SP1 directly and indirectly through the Bclw-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-Sp1 pathway. miR-335 showing altered expression at different stages of gastric cancer could be a target for gastric cancer therapies and could be further developed as a potential prognostic factor.

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