Cilium is a conservative cell organelle, found in many types of cell surfaces. Cilia are tail-like prominence protruding out of the cell surface, capable of locomotion and acting as the cell's signal transduction sensory organs with their complex structures and ingenious function. Studies have shown that ciliary pathological changes and defects are related to the development of many diseases, including renal cysts, infertility, organ reversal, obesity and so on. The inactivation and mutation of cilia-related proteins can cause tumors, such as neoplasms, intestinal cancer, myeloma, rhabdomyosarcoma and adenocarcinoma. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a kind of multifunctional protein encoded by theAPCgene that participates in many vital activities of organisms. The mutation of APC can lead to familial adenomatous polyposis, and also has a role in the development of human tumors, such as gastric cancer, esophageal cancer and breast carcinoma. Recent studies indicate that the abnormal mutation of APC may lead to some diseases caused by abnormal growth of cilia. Herein, the development of studies on cilia, APC and associated diseases are summarized in brief.