Erythropoietin (Epo) is widely used clinically to treat anemia associated with various clinical conditions including cancer. Data from several clinical trials suggest significant adverse effect of Epo treatment on cancer patient survival. However, controversy exists whether Epo receptor (EpoR) is functional in cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that EpoR mRNA expression was detectable in 90.1% of 65 melanoma cell lines, and increased copy number of the Epo and EpoR loci occurred in 30 and 24.6% of 130 primary melanomas, respectively. EpoR knockdown in melanoma cells resulted in diminished ERK phosphorylation in response to Epo stimulation, decreased cell proliferation and increased response to the inhibitory effect of hypoxia and cisplatinin vitro. EpoR knockdown significantly decreased melanoma xenograft size and tumor invasionin vivo.On the contrary, constitutive activation of EpoR activated cell proliferation pathways in melanoma cells and resulted in increased cell proliferation and resistance to hypoxia and cisplatin treatmentin vitro. EpoR activation resulted in significantly larger xenografts with increased tumor invasion of surrounding tissuein vivo. Daily administration of recombinant Epo fails to stimulate melanoma growthin vivo, but the treatment increased vascular size in the xenografts. Increased local recurrence after excision of the primary tumors was observed after Epo treatment. Epo induced angiogenesis in Matrigel plug assays, and neutralization of Epo secreted by melanoma cells results in decreased angiogenesis. These data support that EpoR is functional in melanoma and EpoR activation may promote melanoma progression, and suggest that Epo may stimulate angiogenesis and increase survival of melanoma cells under hypoxic conditionin vivo.