The metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) is over-expressed in various human cancers and is closely connected with aggressive phenotypes; however, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of theMTA1gene. This study identified theMTA1gene as a target of p53-mediated transrepression. TheMTA1promoter contains two putative p53 response elements (p53REs), which were repressed by the p53-inducing drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Notably, 5-FU treatment decreasedMTA1expression only in p53 wild-type cells. p53 and histone deacetylases 1/2 were recruited, and acetylation of H3K9 was decreased on the promoter region including the p53REs after 5-FU treatment. Proteomics analysis of the p53 repressor complex, which was pulled down by theMTA1promoter, revealed that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) was part of the complex. Interestingly, p53 was poly(ADP-ribose)ylated by PARP-1, and the p53-mediated transrepression of theMTA1gene required poly(ADP-ribose)ylation of p53. In summary, we report a novel function for poly(ADP-ribose)ylation of p53 in the gene-specific regulation of the transcriptional mode of p53 on the promoter ofMTA1.